The Mughal Empire started with the arrival of Turkik prince Babur in 1526, who arrived from modern-day Uzbekistan. Babur defeated Lodhi in the battle of Panipat. The Mughals, known initially as moguls, ruled over the Indian land for more than two centuries.
India was once the wealthiest leading economy in the world. Trade flourished in India during the 12 and 13th centuries, attracting several invasions that continued for years to come. The Arabs and Afghans were the early Mughals that were attracted to India. The Arabs were the first ones to acquire Islam, followed by Turks. However, with the evolution of time, the Turks were more radical in their religious pursuits than Arabs. Therefore, in order to spread Islam, they started conquering west Asia and later East Asia.
The arrival of Babur was the result of him being defeated. Babur was defeated by Shibani Khan thrice in his pursuit to conquer Samarkand, so he moved to Kabul instead, where after the death of King of Kabul, its people were searching for a Timurid prince. He ruled Kabul for a few years.
When Shibani Khan, who was searching for him, was killed by the Persian king, he decided to take over Timur’s land. He got help from all of Timur’s strategies he could get from a lady who’s grandfather served for Timur. Along with Humayun, Babur defeated the Delhi Sultan Lodhi in the battle of Panipat and acquired Punjab. After the victory, he rode till Agra, which he declared his capital.
Dysfunctional political system
Before Babur conquered India, the political system was crumbling in the hands of the current rulers. Timur defeated the Tughlaq dynasty in 1519 and was soon defeated by the Lodhi’s. Since Timur had once ruled the land, the need to acquire his rightful land sparked in Babur. Around the time Babar was in Kabul, the Lodhi dynasty was weakening. The Rajputs and Afghans were struggling for power.
Meanwhile, inner strife was bubbling, Daulat Lodhi sent his son to invite Babur to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi in 1524. A year later, Rana Sanga sent Sangram Singh in 1525 to Babur for the same reason. They both did so, thinking Babur to be a temporary guest who won’t stay in India. However, their plan backfired after Babur, who wanted a place to settle and spread his dynasty, decided to make India his home.